Salah Ad-din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub (known as Saladin in the West ), was sultan of Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Yemen, founded the Ayyubid dynasty, and captured Jerusalem from the Christians. He is a one of the most famous Muslim heroes and a consummate military tactician. Saladin was born to a well-off Kurdish family in Tikrit (Iraq) and grew up in Ba’lbek and Damascus. He began his military career by joining the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important commander. By 1169, at the age of 31, he had been appointed vizier of the Fatimid caliphate in Egypt as well as commander of the Syrian troops there.
In 1171, Saladin abolished the Shi’ite caliphate and proclaimed a return to Sunni Islam in Egypt, whereupon he became that country’s sole ruler. In 1187 he took on the Latin Crusader Kingdoms, and on July 4 of that year he scored a resounding victory at the battle of Hattin. Later the same year Salahuddin conquered Jerusalem. Thousands of Crusaders were arrested. However, when their mothers, sisters, and wives appealed to Salahuddin, he released them. Many crusaders were ransomed.
However, he paid for many of them. In addition, he provided them transport, etc. He allowed neither massacre nor looting. He gave free pardon to all citizens. He even arranged for their traveling. He granted freedom to Christians to leave the city if they paid a small tribute